I prepared the March articles before Russia invaded Ukraine. Let me add, #StandWithUkraine.
York, an ancient Roman city, was a major influence in political and religious events in Northern England during the time period when the Separatists gathered for underground worship in the nearby Scrooby Manor. Religious rebels were often imprisoned there for challenging the authorities. York Castle, only fifty miles north of Scrooby, along the Great North Road, will re-open in April 2022 after being closed for repairs.
Author and genealogist Sue Allan is the official historian of Scrooby Manor. She believes several Separatists the Scrooby group must surely have known, were confined in that prison. To the best of my knowledge, none of the future Mayflower passengers were among them; but concerns they could wind up there must have weighed heavily on them. Several of the men and women imprisoned in York came from the neighboring community of Gainsborough. Gervase Nevil, from Scrooby, was also confined there.
Searchers on the Prowl
Fears that church searchers would discover them and hand them over for sentencing and confinement to the York prison were realistic. Such concerns no doubt helped the Scrooby group strengthen their resolve to emigrate to the Lowlands. Their situation was certainly precarious, given they held their unauthorized services in property owned by the Archbishop of York. King James, head of the church, showed no tolerance for people who challenged what he and the bishops decreed should be the way church and government functioned. People who differed with his decrees risked losing their freedom and often their lives
Today the only remaining part of what was once a sprawling medieval castle complex is Clifford’s Tower. It is open to anyone who loves old castles, fascinating history and is willing to climb many steps. In 1068 William the Conqueror built the first rendition of the castle as a base for controlling Northern England. He built it on a site first used by Roman soldiers in their push north to claim yet more land for the Roman Empire. Some of the original Roman wall around the city still stands near the York Castle.
Conflict and Tragedy
The castle built by William the Conqueror burned to the ground in the 1190 massacre of an estimated 150 Jews. When an angry mob attacked the Jews, they fled to the safety of the castle. This took place in the era of the Crusades. Tempers often flared with deadly consequences against Jewish people, as well as Muslims. Thanks to the twelfth century version of fake news and fear mongering propaganda, the Jews were vilified in part because so many non-Jewish people were deeply in debt to Jewish moneylenders. Nefarious, untrue, rumors circulated that King Richard ordered the massacre of Jews. In March of 1190 the mob set the castle on fire, killing everyone inside. The full story is found on the British History website and History of York.
The Castle was rebuilt in the thirteenth century and included Clifford’s Tower. When completed the Castle became the site for trials each spring and summer. Prisoners awaiting their trials were kept in dungeons there. By the time the Mayflower Pilgrim story begins, the Castle was in a state of decay, but apparently the prison within it was still in use, as records confirm some of the Separatists were detained there.
For nearly a thousand years those charged with serious crimes have been confined within the York Castle complex. It wasn’t until 1780 that a new jail was built to detain female prisoners separately from men. Various historical records verify women were imprisoned here long before that. At the dawn of the twentieth century the facility was converted into a military prison, but that closed in 1929. The old Victorian prison was demolished at that time. The remaining facilities, known as the York Crown Court, continue to be used to dispense justice for the Yorkshire area today. It is still has holding cells for people accused of serious crimes.
Though the facilities are temporarily closed for tours, as are most public places during the Great Pause of 2020, people can learn more about this intriguing place at York Castle Museum.
Thank you for taking time to read more about the Pilgrim Journey. I hope this armchair tour of York, England inspires you. If so, share it with a friend. Or you can sign up for your own free subscription at HowWiseThen.
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